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Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) Stein


Thallus foliose, underside with well-develped cortex, lobes tufted to layered and palmately spreading, margins budding off spherical yellow soredia; apothecia yellow, said often to have a roughened margin (Dobson). Resembles Xanthoria ucrainica and X. ulophyllodes but does not test crimson-red with KOH. Widespread but local and mainly in the south, formerly declining but now increasing again, mostly on nutrient-enriched bark.

Refs: Smith et al. (2009), 275; Purvis et al. (1992), 159; Dobson (2005), 110 (photo); Dobson (2011), 119 (photo); Jahns (1983), 210-211 (photo); Whelan (2011), 64 (photo); van Haluwyn et al. (2009), 78-9 (photo); van Herk & Aptroot (2004, 2013), 108-9 (photo); Holien & Tønsberg (2008), 158; Moberg & Holmåson (1984), 134 (photo); Wirth (1995), 1: 241 (photo); Wirth et al. (2004), 130 (photo); Wirth, Hauck & Schulz (2013), 1: 319-20 (photo); Frahm et al. (2010), 103 (photo); Puntillo (1996), plate 9 (photo); Valcárcel et al. (2003), 144-5 (photo); Hinds & Hinds (2007), 140-1 (photo); Brodo et al. (2001), 205-6 (photo); Walewski (2007), 105 (photo).

C. pacifica differs in lacking a lower cortex, the surface being white to greenish and arachnoid. It is recently discovered in Brtain and is evidently rare, but may be overlooked. It is illustrated in Stenroos et al. 2011. Description also at http://fungi.myspecies.info/all-fungi/candelaria-pacifica.

Photographed in the Netherlands, British photographs pending.

 
Candelaria concolor
Candelaria concolor
On elm (Ulmus), Gilze, Netherlands, July 2008


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Uploaded October 2008, last updated January 2016