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Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd.


Primary thallus of rather large (to 2cm in length), basal squamules, these deeply divided, lobes elongated, green to yellow-green above when fresh, curled upwards showing smooth, conspicuous, yellowish-white (faintly yellow in good light) undersurface when dry, margins sometimes with tufts of black cilia, podetia generally rare, inconspicuous, irregularly cup-shaped; apothecia pink-brown when fresh, forming partial or complete rings on the cup margins. Often common in sandy or calcareous, coastal turf, also local in suitable, well-drained habitats inland.

Refs: Smith et al. (2009), 328; Purvis et al. (1992), 207; Nordic Lichen Flora (2013) 5: 42, 99 (photo); Dobson (2005), 138 (photo); Dobson (2011), 146 (photo); Jahns (1983), 20-221 (photo); Whelan (2011), 74 (photo); van Herk & Aptroot (2004, 2013), 142-143 (photo); Aptroot et al. (2011), 74-5 (photos); Wirth (1995), 1: 312, 313 (photo, James, in Smith et al., pg. 323, refers this photo to C. cervicornis, but it seems better accepted here); Wirth et al. (2004), 165 (photo); Wirth, Hauck & Schulz (2013), 1: 388 (photo), 389; Krog et al. (1994), 157 (photo); Moberg & Holmåson (1984), 142 (photo); Stenroos et al. (2011), 138 (photo); Valcárcel et al. (2003), 160-1 (photo); Lichen Atlas of the British Isles 2: 387 (1996).

The yellow underside of the squamules is given emphasis in books, but this is faint and does not readily show in shade or in photographs. The primary thallus of C. cervicornis can be very similar but the squamules are pure white beneath (more obvious in the field), somewhat smaller and never possess black, marginal cilia. For differences (if any) from C. convoluta, see that species.

FGBI: http://fungi.myspecies.info/all-fungi/cladonia-foliacea

Cladonia foliacea, squamules
In coastal turf in dry state, Stackpole, Pembrokeshire, May 2009
 
Cladonia foliacea, squamules
In dune turf in dry state, Cuthill Links, East Sutherland, April 2009
 
Cladonia foliacea with apothecia
Cladonia foliacea with apothecia
Cladonia foliacea with apothecia
Cladonia foliacea with apothecia
Material with podetia and apothecia, in dune turf in damp state, Winterton-on-Sea, Norfolk, January 2010 (BLS meeting)
 
Cladonia foliacea with apothecia
Material with podetia and apothecia, in dune turf in damp state, Burnham Overy Staith, Norfolk, January 2010 (BLS meeting)


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Uploaded January 2014, updated January 2016