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Cladonia subulata (L.) F.H.Wigg.


Podetia very variable, grey-brown or greenish grey to ash-grey, sometimes markedly blackening below with age, slender, cylindrical, lacking a longitudinal fissure (compare C. glauca), unbranched or with furcate or antler-like branching, or terminating in irregular cups that usually proliferate from the margins, the proliferations often pointed but sometimes themselves terminating with minute, button-like cups, usually ecorticate and greyish farinose-sorediate to the base, or sometimes sparsely squamulose in lower part, basal squamules small; apothecia brown, rare. Widespread and common in heathland and moorland habitats, often amongst rocks.

Refs: Dolnik et al. (2010), Lichenologist 42: 373-386; Smith et al. (2009), 337; Purvis et al. (1992), 205; Nordic Lichen Flora (2013) 5: 78, 108 (photo); Dobson (2005), 146 (photo); Dobson (2011), 152-3 (photo); van Herk & Aptroot (2004, 2013), 160-161 (photo, but variant not morphologically separable from C. rei, fide Dolnik et al.); Aptroot et al. (2011), 116-7 (photos); Wirth (1995), 1: 302, 303 (photo); Wirth et al. (2004), 81 (photo); Wirth, Hauck & Schulz (2013), 1: 380, 411 (photo); Krog et al. (1994), 171 (photo); Moberg & Holmåson (1984), 146 (photo); Stenroos et al. (2011), 176 (photo); Valcárcel et al. (2003), 170-1 (photo); Thomson (1967) 111, plate 14 fig. 67 (photo); Hinds & Hinds (2007), 212 (photo); Brodo et al. (2001), 273 (photo); McCune & Geiser (2009), 75 (photo); Lichen Atlas of the British Isles 5: 422 (2000).

The apparently rare C. rei shows morphological overlap with this species but is weakly UV+ (white), whereas C. subulata is UV-. Colonies with prominent cups with little proliferation or with proliferations and upper branches short and stubby could be either species, see Dolnik et al. (ref above) for comparison. C. rei is generally a ruderal species on bare, acid soil, usually with the moss Ceratodon purpureus (Paus, et al. (1993), Bibliotheca Lichenologica 53: 191-200).

FGBI: http://fungi.myspecies.info/all-fungi/cladonia-subulata

Cladonia subulata
Cladonia subulata
On drystone wall, Uplawmoor, Renfrewshire, March 2009
 
Cladonia subulata
Among rocks on moorland bank, Cabrach, Aberdeenshire, August 2009


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Uploaded July 2010, last updated January 2016