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Cladonia sulphurina (Michx.) Fr.


Podetia very variable, irregularly spindle-shaped or with usually somewhat ragged, elongated cups, longitudinally split, finely sorediate, sometimes corticate and with a few squamules towards the base, distinctly yellow-green (but yellow tints may be lost in photographs) to sulphur yellow, basal squamules large, lobed, green, white and somewhat sorediate beneath, spreading, with upturned margins; pycnidia and apothecia red, the latter rare. Widespread in heathland and moorland habitats in northern and eastern Scotland, much rarer and remaining eastern further south, reported also on rotting conifer wood and thatch.

Refs: Smith et al. (2009), 337; Purvis et al. (1992), 199; Nordic Lichen Flora (2013) 5: 79, 108 (photo); Dobson (2005), 132 (photo); Dobson (2011), 140 (photo); Britton (2008) 32 (photo); Jahns (1983), 214-215 (photo); van Herk & Aptroot (2004, 2013), 160-161 (photo); Wirth (1995), 1: 300, 301 (photo); Wirth, Hauck & Schulz (2013), 1: 376, 412 (photo); Krog et al. (1994), 171 (photo); Moberg & Holmåson (1984), 139 (photo); Holien & Tønsberg (2008), 86 (photo); Stenroos et al. (2011), 177 (photo); Hansen & Andersen (1995), 33 (photo); Thomson (1967) 68, plate 2 fig. 10 (photo, as C. gonecha); Hinds & Hinds (2007), 213; Brodo et al. (2001), 274 (photo); Pope (2005), 22 (photo); McCune & Geiser (2009), 98 (photo); Øvstedal & Lewis Smith (2001), 173, plate 37 (photo); Lichen Atlas of the British Isles 2: 423 (1996).

Sometimes with well developed, neat cups (contrary to the statement in Dobson!), and such variants have been wrongly claimed as C. deformis. The latter species has been dismissed as a British species but recently has been confirmed in the Scottish Highlands; it differs in its chemistry.

Cladonia sulphurina
Cladonia sulphurina
In sandy pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest, Culbin Sands, Morayshire, August 2010, with C. portentosa.


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© A.J. Silverside
Uploaded March 2012, updated January 2016