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Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl.


Thallus foliose, lobes smooth and reflective above, flat to convex, hollow, pale to green-grey, dark brown to black beneath and lacking rhizines, tips often turned up and sorediate; apothecia rare, stalked, with red-brown discs. Very variable and, when lobes are flat, can resemble Hypotrachyna laevigata, but the latter is larger and has repeatedly-branched rhizines beneath. Throughout Britain and often very common on acid-barked trees and heather (Calluna) stems, also terrestrial on base-poor dunes.

Refs: Smith et al. (2009), 438; Purvis et al. (1992), 276; Dobson (2005), 191-2 (photo); Dobson (2011), 197 (photo); Allen (2007), 20 (photo); Britton (2008) 36 (photo); Jahns (1983), 202-3 (photo); Whelan (2011), 99 (photo); van Haluwyn et al. (2009), 72-3 (photo); van Herk & Aptroot (2004, 2013), 192-193 (photo); Valcárcel et al. (2003), 198-9 (photo); Wirth (1995), 1: 427-9 (photos); Wirth et al. (2004), 93 (photo); Wirth, Hauck & Schulz (2013), 1: 531 (photo), 532, 534; Frahm et al. (2010), 109 (photo); Moberg & Holmåson (1984), 85 (photo); Holien & Tønsberg (2008), 46 (photo); Nordic Lichen Flora (2011) 4: 59, 156 (photo); Stenroos et al. (2011), 42 & 233 (photos); Hansen & Anderson (1995), 38 (photo); Brodo et al. (2001), 354 (photo); Pope (2005), 33 (photo); Hinds & Hinds (2007), 274 (photo); Walewski (2007), 108 (photo); McCune & Geiser (2009), 155 (photo).

Lichenicolous fungi on H. physodes include Lichenoconium erodens.

FGBI: http://fungi.myspecies.info/all-fungi/hypogymnia-physodes

 
Hypogymnia physodes
On Birch (Betula), Kindrogan, Perthshire, April 2003


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© A.J. Silverside
Uploaded March 2008, last modified or updated January 2016 (first hosted at www-biol.paisley.ac.uk, May 2006)