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Opegrapha vulgata (Ach.) Ach.


Thallus thin, white or grey to olive or brown; fruitbodies lirellate apothecia up to 3mm in length, very variable, shortly elongated to longer, curved, sinuous, often branched or sometimes stellate, often crowded, very narrowly opening to expose the discs (sometimes more exposed in older apothecia), often numerous, black, dot-like pycnidia intermixed with the lirellae. Part of a difficult genus commonly requiring microscopic examination of the spores for accurate identification, ascospores 4-7(-8)-septate, narrow, straight or curved, clavate or narrowly fusiform, (15-)20-30(-40) × 2.5-4(-4.5) µm (dimensions from Pentecost & James, in Smith et al., 2009). Widespread and locally common on sheltered, smooth, generally nutrient-rich bark.

Refs: Smith et al. (2009), 646; Purvis et al. (1992), 415; Dobson (2005), 293 (photo); Dobson (2011), 295 (photo); van Herk & Aptroot (2004, 2013), 274-5 (photo); Wirth (1995),1: 84 (photo), 2: 623; Valcárcel et al. (2003), 260-1 (photo); Puntillo (1996), plate 27 (photo).

 
Opegrapha vulgata
On Hazel (Corylus avellana) in ancient woodland, Ty Canol, Pembrokeshire, May 2009
 
Opegrapha vulgata
Opegrapha vulgata, enlarged view
On Hazel (Corylus avellana) in oceanic woodland, Ardilistry, Islay, May 2011 (BLS meeting)


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