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Umbilicaria torrefacta (Lightf.) Schrad.


Thallus attached at central point, grey-brown to dark brown above, lacking isidia, often much distorted or crumpled, margins ragged and perforated, lower surface brown to black, with pale, radiating, irregular, rope-like lamellae, thalloconidia absent; apothecia black, multiply-infolded (gyrose). Locally common on exposed rocks and boulders in the north and west. The lamellae on the underside distinguish this species from the otherwise similar but rarer U. hyperborea.

Refs: Krzewicka (2004), 68; Smith et al. (2009), 917; Purvis et al. (1992), 620; Dobson (2005), 437-8 (photo); Dobson (2011), 445 (photo); Jahns (1983), 226-227 (photo); Wirth (1995), 2: 930, 939 (photo); Wirth, Hauck & Schulz (2013), 2: 1121, 1128 (photo); Moberg & Holmåson (1984), 158 (photo); Stenroos et al. (2011), 471 (photo); Hansen & Anderson (1995), 70 (photo); Valcárcel et al. (2003), 368-9 (photo); Puntillo (1996), plate 41 (photo); Hinds & Hinds (2007), 486 (photo); Brodo et al. (2001), 708 (photo); Pope (2005), 42 (photo); McCune & Geiser (2009), 352 (photo).

Umbilicaria torrefacta
Umbilicaria torrefacta
Umbilicaria torrefacta
With other Umbilicaria spp. (mixed with U. polyphylla in the lowest photograph),
on exposed, siliceous, glacial-erratic, moorland boulder, Loch Eriboll, West Sutherland, July 2012
 
Umbilicaria torrefacta
Umbilicaria torrefacta, apothecia
Umbilicaria torrefacta
On montane boulder, Glen Shee, Aberdeenshire, August 2008


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Uploaded September 2011, last updated September 2013