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Xanthoparmelia loxodes (Nyl.) O.Blanco et al.
 
(= Parmelia loxodes Nyl.; Neofuscelia loxodes (Nyl.) Essl.)


Thallus foliose, forming extensive patches, light- to grey- or red-brown, slightly lustrous to distinctly glossy, lobes usually narrow, often serpentine, convex in cross-section or flattened at the tips, commonly with small, transverse ridges, usually with dense, cauliflower-like clusters of coarse, spherical isidia, lower surface black; apothecia infrequent, with dark-brown discs and pale, variably isidiate margins. Widespread, predominantly lowland and coastal on sunny rocks, in some inland areas characteristic of basalt outcrops.

Refs: Smith et al. (2009), 965; Purvis et al. (1992), 436 (as Parmelia); Dobson (2005), 278 (photo, as Neofuscelia); Dobson (2011), 468 (photo); van Herk & Aptroot (2004, 2013), 258-9 (photo, as Neofuscelia); Valcárcel et al. (2003), 272-3 (photo, as Parmelia); Wirth, Hauck & Schulz (2013), 2: 1184, 1185 (photo); Nordic Lichen Flora (2011) 4: 133, 173 (photo, printed too dark); Stenroos et al. (2011), 496 (photo); Lichen Atlas of the British Isles 1: 1003 (1995) (as Parmelia).

The species of this group are difficult, variable and not always separable morphologically. X. verruculifera also has isidia, often more generally dispersed on the thallus but sometimes in dense clusters and then closely similar to X. loxodes, but the initially globose isidia tend to become taller ("broccoli" more than "cauliflower") and sometimes coralloid-branched, and the thallus is usually red- to darker brown. The cited photographs of the two species in Wirth, Hauck & Schulz (2013) are useful. If X. loxodes lacks isidia then it will be scarcely distinguishable from X. pulla or X. delisei, or rarer species in the genus.

Xanthoparmelia loxodes
On coastal rocks, near Bolt Head, South Devon, June 2010
 
Xanthoparmelia loxodes
On basalt rocks, Traprain Law, East Lothian, June 2011, material with apothecia


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Uploaded May 2012; updated December 2013