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Xanthoparmelia verruculifera (Nyl.) O.Blanco et al.
 
(= Parmelia verruculifera Nyl.; Neofuscelia verruculifera (Nyl.) Essl.)


Thallus foliose, forming extensive patches, light- or grey- to red- or dark-brown, slightly lustrous to distinctly glossy, lobes usually narrow, often serpentine, convex in cross-section or flattened at the tips, commonly with small, transverse ridges, generally with scattered to dense masses of coarse, coralloid isidia on the older lobe surfaces, lower surface black; apothecia infrequent, with dark-brown discs and pale, variably isidiate margins. Widespread, predominantly lowland and coastal on sunny rocks, stone memorials and tombstones, including basalt outcrops.

Refs: Smith et al. (2009), 967; Purvis et al. (1992), 437 (as Parmelia); Dobson (2005), 279 (photo, as Neofuscelia); Dobson (2011), 470 (photo); van Herk & Aptroot (2004, 2013), 258-9 (photo, as Neofuscelia); Wirth (1995), 2: 642, 643, 658 (photo, as Parmelia); Wirth et al. (2004), 149 (photo, as Parmelia); Wirth, Hauck & Schulz (2013), 2: 1184, 1189 (photo); Nordic Lichen Flora (2011) 4: 138, 174 (photo, printed too dark); Stenroos et al. (2011), 500 (photo); Lichen Atlas of the British Isles 1: 1026 (1995) (as Parmelia).

The species of this group are difficult, variable and not always separable morphologically. X. loxodes also has dense clusters of isidia, but these are more confined to raised pustules, remain globose and are likened to "cauliflowers" whereas those of X. verruculifera are maybe more "broccoli", becoming taller, often coralloid-branched, and the thallus is often red- to darker brown. The cited photographs of the two species in Wirth, Hauck & Schulz (2013) are useful. If X. verruculifera lacks isidia then it will be scarcely distinguishable from X. pulla or X. delisei, or rarer species in the genus.

Xanthoparmelia verruculifera
On basalt rocks, Hairy Craig, East Lothian, June 2011
 
Xanthoparmelia verruculifera
On coastal rocks, Isle of Skomer, Pembrokeshire, May 2009


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Uploaded May 2012, updated December 2013