Images of British Lichens

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Species pages: references

Cited sources for published descriptions and photographs, serial publications as cited on the species pages. These are not in any way comprehensive, nor, necessarily, the most recent editions, merely sources that come to hand, nor are all photographs and descriptions in these works cited. See the links page for on-line resources.

Allen, A. (2007). Lundy lichens, Lundy Field Society. [Details to obtain this excellent booklet, invaluable for south-western coastal lichens, are on the BLS website.]

Aptroot, A., van Herk, K., & Sparrius, L. (2011). Veldgids korstmossen van duin, heide en stuifzand, Bryologische en Lichenologische Wekgroep van de KNNV, [unlocalised].

Arup, U. (2006). A new taxonomy of the Caloplaca citrina group in the Nordic countries, except Iceland. Lichenologist 38: 1–20.

Arup, U. (2009). The Caloplaca holocarpa group in the Nordic countries, except Iceland. Lichenologist 41: 111–130.

Arup, U., Ekman, F., Kärnefelt, I., & Mattsson, J.E. (1997). Syyddsvärda lavar i sydvästra Sverige, SBF-förlaget, Lund.

Ahti, T. (1961). Taxonomic studies on reindeer lichens (Cladonia subgenus Cladina). Annales Botanici Societatis Zoologicae Botanicae Fennicae 'Vanamo' 32, no. 1.

Barrasa, J.M., & Rico, V.J. (2001). Lichenised species of Omphalina (Tricholomataceae) in the Iberian Peninsula. Lichenologist 33: 371–386.

Breitenbach, J., & Kränzlin, F. (1986). Fungi of Switzerland, vol. 2: Non-gilled fungi: Heterobasidiomycetes, Aphyllophorales, Gasteromycetes, Verlag Mykologia, Lucerne.

Breitenbach, J., & Kränzlin, F. (1991). Fungi of Switzerland, vol. 3: Boletes and agarics 1st part, Edition Mykologia, Lucerne.

Britton, A. (n.d.) [2008]. The montane heathland lichen guide, Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen.

Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D., & Shjarnoff, S. (2001). Lichens of North America, Yale University Press, New Haven. [This magnificent work should be on the shelves of every lichenologist – providing their shelves are strong enough.]

Buczacki, S., Shields, C., & Ovenden, D. (2012). Collins fungi guide, HarperCollins Publishers, London.

Bungartz, F., Nordin, A., & Grube, U. (2007). Buellia, in Nash, T.H., Gries, C.& Bungartz, F., (eds.), Lichen flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert region, vol. 3, Arizona State University, Tempe, pp. 113–179.

Church, J.M., Coppins, B.J., Gilbert, O.L., James, P.W., & Stewart, N.F. (1996). Red Data Books of Britain and Ireland: lichens, volume 1: Britain, JNCC, Peterborough.

Coppins, B.J., & James, P.W. (1984). New or interesting lichens V. Lichenologist 16: 241–264. [Includes an account and revision of Trapelia and Trapeliopsis.]

Courtecuisse, R., & Duhem, B. (1995). Mushrooms & toadstools of Britain & Europe, Harper Collins, London.

Dalby, D.H., & Dalby, C. (2005). Shetland lichens, Shetland Amenity Trust, Lerwick.

Diederich, P. (1996). The lichenicolous heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 61: 198 pp.

Dobson, F.S. (2005). Lichens. An illustrated guide to the British and Irish species, ed. 5, Richmond Publishing Co., Slough.

Dobson, F.S. (2011). Lichens. An illustrated guide to the British and Irish species, ed. 6, Richmond Publishing Co., Slough.

Elborne, S.A. (2008). Lichenomphalia Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys, in Knudsen, H., & Vesterholt, J., (eds.), Funga Nordica, agaricoid, boletoid and cyphelloid genera, Nordsvamp, Copenhagen, pp. 223–225.

Elborne, S.A. (2012). Lichenomphalia Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys, in Knudsen, H., & Vesterholt, J., (eds.), Funga Nordica, agaricoid, boletoid, clavarioid, cyphelloid and gastroid genera, ed. 2, Nordsvamp, Copenhagen, pp. 293–295.

Ellis, M. B. (1976). More dematiaceous hyphomycetes, C.A.B. International Mycological Institute, Kew.

Eriksson, J., & Ryvarden, L. (1973). The Corticiaceae of North Europe, vol. 2: Aleurodiscus – Confertobasidium, Fungiflora, Oslo.

Favre, J. (1955). Résultats des recherches scientifiques entreprises au Park National suisse 5: Les champignons supérieurs de la zone alpine du Parc National suisse. [my copy, the 1981 reprint, F.Flück-Wirth, Teufen].

Fox, B.W., Guest, J., & Harmer, A. (1993). The lichen flora of Cheshire & Wirral, Nepa Books, Frodsham.

Frahm, J.P., Schumm, F., & Stapper, N.J. (2010). Epiphytische Flechten als Umweltgütezeiger, Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt.

Gaya, E. (2009). Taxonomical revision of the Caloplaca saxicola group (Teloschistaceae, lichen-forming Ascomycota). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 101: 191 pp.

Gulden, G., Jenssen, K.M., & Stordal, J. (1985). Arctic and alpine fungi, vol. 1, Soppkonsulenten, Oslo.

Gulden, G., & Jenssen, K.M. (1988). Arctic and alpine fungi, vol. 2, Soppkonsulenten, Oslo.

Hansen, L., & Knudsen, H., (eds.) (1997). Nordic macromycetes, vol. 3: Heterobasidioid, aphyllophoroid and gasteromycetoid basidiomycetes, Nordsvamp, Copenhagen.

Hansen, S., & Anderson, J. (1995). Greenland lichens, Rhodos International Science & Art [Copenhagen].

Hawksworth, D.L. (1976). New and interesting microfungi from Slapton, South Devonshire: Deuteromycotina III. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 67: 51–59.

Hawksworth, D.L. (1979). The lichenicolous Hyphomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 6(3): 183–300.

Hawksworth, D.L. (1981). The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 9(1): 1–98.

Hawksworth, D.L. (1983). A key to the lichen-forming, parasitic, parasymbiotic and saprophytic fungi occurring on lichens in the British Isles. Lichenologist 15: 1–44.

Hawksworth, D.L. (2003). The lichenicolous fungi of Great Britain and Ireland: an overview and annotated checklist. Lichenologist 35: 191–232.

Hinds, J.W., & Hinds, P.L. (2007). The macrolichens of New England, New York Botanical Garden Press, New York.

Holien, H., & Tønsberg, T. (2008). Norsk lavflora, ed. 2, Tapir Akademisk Forlag, Trondheim.

Jahns, H.M. (1983). Collins guide to the ferns, mosses & lichens of Britain and Northern and Central Europe, Collins, London.

James, P.W.,(2003). Aide mémoire: Usnea, British Lichen Society, [London].

Jülich, W. (1984). Kleine Kryptogamenflora: vol. IIb/1, Basidiomyceten 1, Die Nichtblätterpilze, Gallertpilze und Bauchpilze, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.

Jülich, W., & Stalpers, J.A. (1980). The resupinate non-poroid Aphyllophorales of the temperate northern hemisphere, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam.

Kershaw, K.A. (1961). The genus Umbilicaria in the British Isles. Lichenologist 1: 251–265.

Knudsen, H., & Vesterholt, J., (eds.) (2008). Funga Nordica, agaricoid, boletoid and cyphelloid genera, Nordsvamp, Copenhagen.

Kondratyuk, S. (1997). Notes on Xanthoria Th.Fr. III. Two new species of the Xanthoria candelaria group. Lichenologist 29: 431–440.

Krog, H., Østhagen, H., & Tønsberg, T. (1994). Lavflora. Norske busk- og bladlav, Universitetsforlaget AS, Oslo.

Krzewicka, B. (2004). The lichen genera Lasallia and Umbilicaria in the Polish Tatra Mts. Polish Botanical Studies 17: 1–88.

Legon, N.W., Henrici, A., Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M., & Watling, R. (2005). Checklist of the British and Irish Basidiomycota, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Lichen Atlas of the British Isles: Seaward, M.R.D. (ed.) (1995-2001), fascs. 1-6. British Lichen Society, London. [The BLS has not maintained fasc. 1 in print, though there is a later CD version.]

McCune, B. & Geiser, L. (2009). Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest, ed. 2, Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.

Moberg, R., & Holmåson, I. (1984). Lavar. En fälthandbok, ed. 2, Interpublishing AB, Stockholm.

Mohr, F., Ekman, S., & Heegaard, E. (2004). Evolution and taxonomy of the marine Collemopsidium species (lichenized Ascomycota) in north-west Europe. Mycological Research 108: 515–532.

Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Diederich, P., Gries, C., & Bungartz, F. (eds.) (2004). Lichen flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert region, vol. 2: (most of the microlichens, balance of the macrolichens, and the lichenicolous fungi), Arizona State University, Tempe.

Nordic Lichen Flora: Ahti, T. et al. (eds.) (1999). Vol 1. Introductory parts, calicioid lichens and fungi, Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla.

Nordic Lichen Flora: Ahti, T. et al. (eds.) (2002). Vol 2. Physciaceae, Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla.

Nordic Lichen Flora: Ahti, T. et al. (eds.) (2007). Vol 3. Cyanolichens, Uppsala University/Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla.

Nordic Lichen Flora: Thell, A., & Moberg, R. (eds.) (2011). Vol 4. Parmeliaceae, Uppsala University/Nordic Lichen Society, Uppsala.  [The photographs in this volume have been printed much too dark, but fortunately the same photographs are provided on the accompanying photo-CD.]

Nordic Lichen Flora: Ahti, T., Stenroos, S. & Moberg, R. (eds.) (2013). Vol 5. Cladoniaceae, Uppsala University/Nordic Lichen Society, Uppsala.

Orange A. (2008). British pyrenocarpous lichens, unpublished compilation formerly available online from the British Lichen Society's website. [A new edition (2013) is available from the National Museum of Wales (fungi & lichens) website and references will be updated as time permits.]

Øvstedal, D.O., & Lewis Smith, R.I. (2001). Lichens of Antarctica and South Georgia. A guide to their identification and ecology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Phillips, R. (1981). Mushrooms and other fungi of Great Britain & Europe, Pan Books, London.

Phillips, R. (2006). Mushrooms, Pan Macmillan, London.

Pope, R. (2005). Lichens above Treeline. A hiker's guide to alpine zone lichens of the Northeastern United States., University Press of New England, Lebanon (New Hampshire).

Puntillo, D. (1996). I licheni di Calabria, Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino.

Purvis O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L., James, P.W., & Moore, D.M. (eds.) (1992). The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland, British Lichen Society & Natural History Museum, London.

Redhead, S.A., & Kuyper, T.W. (1987). Lichenized agarics: taxonomic and nomenclatural riddles, in Laursen, G.A., Ammirati, J.F., & Redhead, S.A., (eds.), Arctic and alpine mycology II, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 319–348.

Ryman, S., & Holmåson, I. (1984). Svampar. En fälthandbok, Interpublishing AB, Stockholm.

Schumm, F. (2011). Kalkflechten der Schwäbischen Alb – ein mikroskopisch anatomischer Atlas, Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt.

Śliwa, L. (2007). A revision of the Lecanora dispersa complex in North America. Polish Botanical Journal 52: 1–70.

Smith, C.W., Aptroot, A., Coppins, B.J., Fletcher, A., Gilbert, O.L., James, P.W., & Wolseley, P.A. (eds.) (2009). The lichens of Great Britain and Ireland, British Lichen Society, London.

Stenroos, S. (1989). Taxonomy of the Cladonia coccifera group. 1. Annales Botanici Fennici 36: 157–168.

Stenroos, S., Ahti, T., Lohtander, K, & Myllis, L. (eds.) (2011). Suomen jäkäläopas (as Norrlinia 21: 1–534), Luonnontieteellisen keskusmuseon kasvimuseo, Helsinki.

Sterry, P., & Hughes, B. (2009). Collins complete guide to British mushrooms and toadstools, Harper Collins, London.

Sutton, B. (1980). The Coelomycetes. Fungi imperfecti with pycnidia acervuli and stromata, Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew.

Thomson, J.W. (1967). The lichen genus Cladonia in North America, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Thomson, J.W. (1997). American Arctic lichens, vol 2: The microlichens., University of Wisconsin Press, Wisconsin. [One day, when I have time, I shall add references from vol. 1, the macrolichens, which has beautiful drawings.]

Thor, G. & Arvidsson, L., (eds.) (1999). Rödlistade laver i Sverige Artfacta, ArtDatabanken, SLU, Uppsala.

Tõrra, T, & Randlane, T. (2007). The lichen genus Usnea (lichenized Ascomycetes, Parmeliaceae) in Estonia with a key to the species in the Baltic countries. Lichenologist 39: 415–438.

Valcárcel, C.P., Prado, C.L., & de Silanes Vázquez, E.L., (2003). Guía dos liques de Galicia, Baía Edicióons, Coruña. [A few photographs of macrolichens do not match my understanding of the species concerned and are not cited, but it is valuable for crustose taxa.]

van Herk, K., & Aptroot, A. (2004). Veldgids korstmossen, KNNV Uitgeverij, Utrecht.

van Herk, K., & Aptroot, A. (2013). Veldgids korstmossen, ed. 2, KNNV Uitgeverij, Utrecht. [Labelled a second edition, but appears to be identical in pagination to ed. 1 and seemingly without taxonomic revisions to reflect recent understanding.]

van Haluwyn, C., Asta, J., & Gavériaux, J-P. (2009). Guide des lichens de France. Lichens des arbres, Éditions Belin, [location unstated].

Vitikainen, O. (1994). Taxonomic revision of Peltigera (lichenized Ascomycotina) in Europe. Acta Botanica Fennica 152: 1–96.

Vondrák, J., Říha, P., Arup U., & Søchting, U. (2009). The taxonomy of the Caloplaca citrina group (Teloschistaceae) in the Black Sea region, with contributions to the cryptic species concept in lichenology. Lichenologist 41: 571–604.

Walewski, J. (2007). Lichens of the North Woods, Kollath+Stensaas, Duluth.

Whelan, P. (2011). Lichens of Ireland, The Collins Press, Doughcloyne.

Wirth, V. (1995). Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, ed. 2 (2 vols), Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co., Stuttgart.

Wirth, V., Düll, R., Llimona, X., Ros, R.M., & Wener, O. (2004). Guía de campo de los líquenes, musgos y hepáticas, Ediciones Omega, Barcelona.

Wilk, K. (2012). Calcicolous species of the genus Caloplaca in the Polish Western Carpathians. Polish Botanical Studies 29: 1–91.

Wirth, V., Hauck, M., & Schultz, M. (2013). Die Flechten Deutschlands (2 vols), Eugen Ulmer KG, Stuttgart.


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March 2008, last updated January 2014